Trading group definition geography
Shiller, Ostry, Benford, Joy. We can show, for instance, that ethnicities whose traditional homelands are characterised by unequal land endowments located closer to historical trade routes have higher Muslim adherence. These findings provide a justification to the growing empirical literature that treats Muslim representation as predetermined with respect trading group definition geography contemporary economic and political indicators.
Combining these sources with information on Muslim adherence, we establish the following empirical regularities: Naturally, the international community is following this transition closely. Unlike a cross-country setting, this is feasible with an 'intra-country-across-ethnic-groups' analysis. Putting the Greek debt problem to rest. First, countries with unequal endowments of regional agricultural potential and those located closer to pre-Islamic trading group definition geography routes have higher Muslim representation, as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3.
Regions that harboured such economic inequality were especially ripe for a system like Islam that offered progressive redistributive tenets with centralised authority to enforce them. The stubbornly high cost of remittances. It also shows that trading group definition geography from pre-Islamic trade routes has a lingering effect on the contemporary distribution of Muslims with communities closer to preindustrial trade routes featuring a larger fraction of Muslim adherents.
The Economic Predicaments of Islamism. Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Bologna. Demographics and the Secular Stagnation Hypothesis in Europe. Such correlations are interesting, but our understanding of the Muslim world will remain limited unless we identify the trading group definition geography that gave rise to the adoption of Islam across as well as within countries.
Building on trading group definition geography work, we provide a systematic exploration of the geographic factors that help explain its adherence within as well as across countries. It offered a means by which tribes could be unified through a common identity under one god that transcended clan and class divisions Stearns et al. Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Bologna. These encounters had the potential to bring trade flows to a halt, setting the stage trading group definition geography the emergence of a centralising force that featured redistributive rules. Some studies identify a negative relationship cf.
Similar to the pattern found for all groups in the Old World, African Muslim groups reside on geographically unequal territories that are close to pre-industrial trade routes. These terrains harboured inherently unequal economic opportunities and bred conflict. Second, we focus on ethnic groups. It trading group definition geography a means by which tribes could be unified through a common identity under one god that transcended clan and class divisions Stearns et al. Fortunately, among the pre-colonial traits recorded by Murdock there is an entry describing whether a group believes or not in gods that are supportive of human morality.
Conclusions Our findings show that Islam flourished in very challenging geographical terrains. This resulted in an economic doctrine that promoted poverty alleviation and redistribution, equitable inheritance rules and anti-usury laws. The trading group definition geography suggests that Islam attempted to bring together heterogeneous tribal societies by trading group definition geography crafting its economic principles. Our findings are consistent with the argument that geographic inequality dictates a specific subsistence pattern; we find that Muslim societies in Africa are characterised by a distribution of productive activities that are skewed towards pastoralism, that is, featuring little surplus-producing agriculture.