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This paper shows how criteria and methodology to improve the effects of international trade on food security in fish-exporting and fish-importing developing countries can be generated from international fish marketing and strategic management theoretical frameworks.
Business options trading strategies in nsec in value chains is the unit of analysis. Trade structures rely on the related options trading strategies in nsec power from i the options trading strategies in nsec, economic, social and technological environment and ii the competitive structure in the value chain. Competitive value chain strategies for improving food security in underdeveloped countries are oriented toward production and cost efficiency.
Competitive value-adding export strategies from underdeveloped countries offer differentiation advantages for high-income groups and regions, which may gain higher revenues than are available through domestic trade. Improving food security from international trade may rely upon a broader governance of a range of policies including: The paper proposes the concept of individual export quotas IEQs as a market solution for improving both food security and economic development.
Countries with an insecure food supply situation in a Options trading strategies in nsec framework might be permitted to issue individual export quotas. Such IEQs might be issued to individuals on the condition that they are reciprocated by the import of at least the same quantity of food for human consumption. International trade of fish improves economic development, but not necessary for all.
Trade might improve food security, but not necessarily for all and especially low-income groups. Food security measures should be integrated within international trade regulations to encourage both economic development and food security. This paper deals with the criteria and methodology to improve the effects of international seafood trade on food security in fish-exporting and fish-importing developing countries. The main question to be discussed is: Individual fish export quotas IEQs are discussed as a regulation strategy for improving food security in needed regions.
The discussion will embrace theories on international marketing and strategic management options trading strategies in nsec will be illustrated by a case of Norwegian-Russian fish trade. From a marketing strategy perspective, international trade may be seen as value adding transactions conducted over national borders between businesses in value chains where fish products and money are exchanged.
Value options trading strategies in nsec also called marketing chains from the market perspective are the integrated chains in which products are transformed from being raw material through to manufactured products and services ; information about these products is communicated and ultimately options trading strategies in nsec are delivered to targeted markets wherein consumers are willing and able to pay for them.
This chain integrates physical or technological processing, logistics, economic and social transactions related to the product flows. Social transactions include a variety of sociological, cultural and political interactions. Value adding are the profit seeking activities that fuel the transactions. Both total value adding and its distribution among the participants in the chain options trading strategies in nsec of interest for the analysis.
Performance in terms of value adding as a margin between sales value and production costs is dependent on the total market power of the value chain as a whole compared to competing options trading strategies in nsec chains and its distribution among the participants in the chain Porter, Market power can be gained by business conduct options trading strategies in nsec on competitive combinations of market preferences, product attributes, the marketing mix and organizational solutions Figure 1.
The value chains are embedded in a broader societal context, which is conceptualised as PEST, meaning the political, economic, social and technological environment, controlled by Government and the society which influences the international trading patterns of seafood as well as all other products Figure 2. Controlling values of interest to others 2. Political, Economical, Social and Technological environment 3. Developing and maintaining costs for international transactions 4. What is the supply value for customers?
How rare is the supply compared to competitors? Can the supply be imitated? Is the supply covered by organizational uniqueness? Transaction costs are related to developing and maintaining management of transactions and trade barriers over time. The transaction costs are higher in the early stages of the development of the value chain because of the need to establish routine in relationships and the associated learning curve Baker and Hart, Transaction costs are both barriers for business and Government.
Businesses manage the value chain transaction costs while Governments manage the PEST transaction costs. The relative market power in the chain e. The higher the VRIO value the stronger is the competitive strength and market power for value adding in the transaction process between the end customer and the raw material supplier.
The question of value stands for the customer value of options trading strategies in nsec and services. For example, the more the customers require specific technical supply specification such as freshness or customer relations options trading strategies in nsec order to satisfy their customers or needs, the greater will be the value of these specific product attributes for the buyer.
However, the value is dependent on the rarity of the supply specifications offered in the markets: The best supplier position is to be able to provide the rarest specifications possible. Control over advanced technology or limited quotas belong to this category and here the ideal supplier position is to have control over products that cannot be imitated or copied. All successful products and strategies are copied in the market place if they are not protected.
Patents, branding, exclusive quota rights or control over limited fresh fish supply belong to this factor category. Control over a unique organization to manage the internal and external value chain is also a competitive strength.
The best supplier position is to control rare demanded products, which are embedded in unique business organizations developed through a long history of being difficult to copy in the market place.
Well-developed cost or market oriented organizations, marketing networks, unique and competent staff and efficient organizations all belong to this factor category. The following describes the development of Norwegian-Russian seafood trade in the period in order to demonstrate the dynamics of international trade development.
After the Soviet Union was dissolved, Russian vessels were attracted by higher prices and so started landing cod in Norwegian ports. Over this time Norwegian imports grew from almost nothing to tonnes in The trawlers options trading strategies in nsec from their earlier supply of fish to processing plants in North West Russia, mainly Murmansk, and began deliveries of fresh fish to Norwegian processing plants.
There was however a price premium for frozen-at-sea round fish, which could be traded internationally via Norwegian cold storage capacity, and consequently during the s the Russian vessels invested heavily in onboard freezing.
This investment effectively reduced the impact of freezing equipment as a trade barrier. Those in control of the cold chain trade barriers options trading strategies in nsec able to increase their value adding, while those fish processors who had earlier purchased fresh fish from the Russian vessels lost out. The cold store businesses were thus in a position either to sell to Norwegian processing plants for a higher price, or to trade on the international markets in its unprocessed round form.
More recently a significant and expanding component of this trade has been with China for further processing into fillets, which are then re-exported to Europe and the USA. In the same period, Russia started importing fish from Norway. The fish species exported from Norway fell into two categories: The trade development started as a result of reduction of the governmental-managed trade barriers between Norway and Russia.
This options trading strategies in nsec in control coupled with the existing value chain structures fuelled realignment of trading partnerships. Initially the Norwegian fish processing industry demanded more raw materials to boost their integrated export oriented value chains, while on the other hand the Russian value chains were solely oriented to the domestic markets, a reflection of their earlier planned Soviet economy.
The change in the macro environment meant that the Russian vessels in control of cod quotas in the Barents Sea were able to get much higher prices in line with international market levels compared to the prices offered by the old-fashioned Russian fishing options trading strategies in nsec.
In addition, the new Russian Government demanded landings taxes in Murmansk, which further discouraged Russian vessels to land at home. However on the other side of the transaction, the reduced supply of domestic landings into Options trading strategies in nsec at the time of an increased demand for cheaper seafood products, created a new trade opportunity.
During the s and 90s, Norway had developed very cost efficient pelagic trawlers able to keep very high quality fish in refrigerated seawater tanks keeping fish in ice tanks at zero degree Celsius before freezing in onshore factories.
Whereas earlier most of these pelagic species had gone into the production of fishmeal, the opening of the Russian market made it possible to satisfy the increasing demand of its consumers for cheap pelagic round frozen fish. In addition, a consumer group with higher purchasing power emerged in Russia, especially in Moscow and St.
These consumers were able to pay premium prices for imported high quality products such as farmed salmon, which found a ready supply available from the well-stocked Norwegian salmon industry. In the periodNorway exported tonnes and imported tonnes of options trading strategies in nsec, a trade surplus in excess of tonnes. However, in terms of value these volumes equated to a trade deficit of 1. Combining these balances shows that the Russians gained 1. In other words for each kilo of Russian fish exported to Norway, Russia could import 2.
Leaving aside the, possibly important, issue of consumer preferences it would appear that the winners in this case are the Russian consumers who have improved their seafood supply of about 75 tonnes seafood a year NSEC annual reports From a welfare perspective it is important to note that the winners include low-income consumers who have preferences for low priced pelagic fish; this is in some contrast to the more general impact of trade which tends to result in reduced supply for poorer groups.
In this case other options trading strategies in nsec also include high-income consumers with preferences for more high quality salmon. In addition, the Russian and Norwegian quota owners also win. Russians quota owners gained through the increased rent from the cod stock by exporting directly to Norwegian processing plants, while the Norwegian pelagic quota owners gained by increasing the sales of round frozen fish for human consumption instead of low priced sales for reduction to fishmeal.
However, costs were incurred in the process and were borne by the processing industries in North West Russia mainly in Murmansk. Upon losing raw material supply for their traditional white fish processing plants, thousands of fish processing workers became unemployed with adverse consequences options trading strategies in nsec income and socio-economic welfare in the region. Despite this pattern over the five year period, the trading pattern is not necessarily sustainable in the longer term viewed in a VRIO perspective, only the control of quotas of the strategic business resources cannot be imitated.
The Russian players in this value chain are already investing in factory trawlers and in pelagic boats, further helped by a Norwegian ship building industry. This technology is all available on the market. The Russians have a short learning curve and are soon able to manage the catching and processing operations in the same efficient way as Norway but with lower labour costs. Coordination of transactions and behaviours in the value chains is an important trading barrier between different cultures.
Products, as we observe them in markets, are normally the result of a social, economic and technical process developed over a long period of time. The Norwegian-Russian trade reflects an evolutionary process of product development with both fresh cod and round frozen pelagic species being established, well-known products in the respective markets. Over time fish product forms observed in most market places have expanded from being fundamentally a function of locally available fish resources to incorporate many more different types that are demanded options trading strategies in nsec that options trading strategies in nsec.
Provision of the wider product range has been enabled by available technologies for catching and processing specific species. The Options trading strategies in nsec pelagic fishery is a high-tech operation developed to a very high level compared to many other countries.
However, the history of fish storage and preservation plots an intricate path of product innovation and diffusion, options trading strategies in nsec which the Russian development of onboard freezing operations is yet another example where technology options trading strategies in nsec adopted in response of favourable market conditions.
Technology can be defined as a combination of hardware the physical product and software that is capable of generating knowledge, skill, financial returns and entrepreneurial drive to utilize the resources Rogers, This means that economic development and welfare for the people in the value chain options trading strategies in nsec be obtained by improving technologies and products which satisfy market needs better than alternative technologies.
In order to develop international trade, value chains in one region or country have to be compatible, to some extent at least, with value chains in other regions or countries with different development patterns for products, social traditions and technology Figure 3. Sustainability of the trade requires reciprocal VRIOs. In the Norwegian- Russian case, several problems had to be overcome in the early years of seafood trade, for example the business culture in Russia was options trading strategies in nsec different after 80 years of communist rule.
A lack of compatible business cultures between countries and partners may be an insurmountable barrier for trade development. Development of a mutual understanding of the nature of supply and demand and the act of establishing and developing trade relationships incurs high transaction costs. However, the net gain received by the end consumer should cover the set-up and ongoing transaction costs, including satisfactory profits to all the participants in the chain.
Options trading strategies in nsec sales credit for the middlemen until the products are sold to the end consumer is an often-used strategy to increase sales through the value chain, but such credit is risky.
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